Rapid transit first began in London with the opening in 1863 of the Metropolitan Railway, which is now part of the London Underground (wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_transit). However, smoke from steam engines collected in the tunnels, leading to an uncomfortable passenger experience. Between 1863 and 1890, there were numerous proposals to build pneumatic or cable-hauled railways in London to overcome this problem, but none proved successful. Smoke was less of a problem in steam-hauled elevated railways, the first of which opened in New York City in 1870.
In the 21st century, China, Japan, and Indonesia will became the world’s leaders by number of rapid transit systems as well as the fastest growth of such systems, and many other cities in other Asian countries also began construction on their own metropolitan transit systems.
Map of metropolitan transit system is totally complicated, but in Dovak’s imagination and minimalized thinking was inspired to create his Mini Metros series years ago, he only published the first batch in 2016. He has noted that creating each tiny chart has been no small feat, as he has challenged himself to follow a self-created set of clear-cut and complicated graphic design guidelines: lines must measure 3px, parallel lines must have at least 3px between them, diagonals should measure 45-degrees, and each redesigned map must fit into a 120px circle. If sticking to those rigorous rules sounds a bit tricky, that’s because it was! “There were many cities that were difficult to fit into these requirements,” Peter Dovak confessed on his website (transitoriented.design/blog/2016/12/3/mini-metros-update-1). “But it was very satisfying creating very complex maps that still resembled their full-size counterparts at very small sizes.”